Recital 25

Public sector bodies should be able to charge fees for the re-use of data but should also be able to allow re-use at a discounted fee or free of charge, for example for certain categories of re-use such as non-commercial re-use for scientific research purposes, or re-use by SMEs and start-ups, civil society and educational establishments, so as to provide incentives for such re-use in order to stimulate research and innovation and support undertakings that are an important source of innovation and typically find it more difficult to collect relevant data themselves, in accordance with State aid rules. In that specific context, scientific research purposes should be understood to include any type of research-related purpose regardless of the organisational or financial structure of the research institution in question, with the exception of research that is being conducted by an undertaking with the aim of developing, enhancing or optimising products or services. Such fees should be transparent, non-discriminatory and limited to the necessary costs incurred and should not restrict competition. A list of categories of re-users to which a discounted fee or no charge applies, together with the criteria used to establish that list, should be made public.