Recital 22

Some third countries adopt laws, regulations and other legal acts which aim to directly transfer or provide governmental access to non-personal data in the Union under the control of natural and legal persons under the jurisdiction of the Member States. Decisions and judgments of third-country courts or tribunals or decisions of third-country administrative authorities requiring such transfer of or access to non-personal data should be enforceable where they are based on an international agreement, such as a mutual legal assistance treaty, in force between the requesting third country and the Union or a Member State. In some cases, situations may arise where the obligation to transfer or provide access to non-personal data arising from a third country law conflicts with a competing obligation to protect such data under Union or national law, in particular with regard to the protection of the fundamental rights of the individual or of the fundamental interests of a Member State related to national security or defence, as well as the protection of commercially sensitive data and the protection of intellectual property rights, including contractual undertakings regarding confidentiality in accordance with such law. In the absence of international agreements regulating such matters, the transfer of or access to non-personal data should be allowed only if, in particular, it has been verified that the third-country’s legal system requires the reasons and proportionality of the decision or judgment to be set out, that the decision or judgment is specific in character, and that the reasoned objection of the addressee is subject to a review by a competent third-country court or tribunal, which is empowered to take duly into account the relevant legal interests of the provider of such data.

Moreover, public sector bodies, natural or legal persons to which the right to re-use data was granted, data intermediation services providers and recognised data altruism organisations should ensure, where they sign contractual agreements with other private parties, that non-personal data held in the Union are accessed in or transferred to third countries only in accordance with Union law or the national law of the relevant Member State.