Recital 13

Public sector bodies should comply with competition law when establishing the principles for re-use of data they hold, avoiding the conclusion of agreements which might have as their objective or effect the creation of exclusive rights for the re-use of certain data. Such agreements should be possible only where justified and necessary for the provision of a service or the supply of a product in the general interest. This may be the case where the exclusive use of the data is the only way to maximise the societal benefits of the data in question, for example where there is only one entity (which has specialised in the processing of a specific dataset) capable of providing the service or supplying the product which allows the public sector body to provide a service or supply a product in the general interest. Such arrangements should, however, be concluded in accordance with applicable Union or national law and be subject to regular review based on a market analysis in order to ascertain whether such exclusivity continues to be necessary. In addition, such arrangements should comply with the relevant State aid rules, as appropriate, and should be concluded for a limited duration which should not exceed 12 months. In order to ensure transparency, such exclusive agreements should be published online, in a form that complies with relevant Union law on public procurement. Where an exclusive right to re-use data does not comply with this Regulation, that exclusive right should be invalid.